Baseball and the American City



Baade, Robert Allen. Stadiums, Professional Sports, and Economic Development: Assessing the Reality. Detroit: Heartland Institute, 1994.

Baim, Dean V. The Sports Stadium as a Municipal Investment. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Bale, John. Sport, Space, and the City. London: Routledge, 1993

Bale, John and Olof Moen, eds. The Stadium and the City. Keele University Press, 1996

Bast, Joseph L. Sports Stadium Madness: Why it Started: How to Stop It. Chicago: Heartland Institute, 1998.

Cagan, Joanna. Field of Schemes: How the Great Stadium Swindle Turns Public Money into Private Profit. Monroe, ME.: Common Courage Press, 1998.

Danielson, Michael N. Home Team: Professional Sports and the American Metropolis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997.

Demmert, Henry G. The Economics of Professional Team Sports. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1973.

Euchner, Charles C. Playing the Field: Why Sports Teams Move and Cities Fight to Keep Them. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.

Fizel, John, Elizabeth Gustafson, and Lawrence Hadley, eds. Baseball Economics: Current Research. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, 1996.

Gorman, Jerry, Calhoun, Kirk and Rozin, Skip. The Name of the Game: The Business of Sports. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1994

Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage Books, 1961.

Jacobs, Jane. The Economy of Cities. New York: Random House, 1969

John, Geraint & Sheard, Rod. Stadia: A Design and Development Guide (3rd Ed.). Oxford: Architectural Press, 2000.

Johnson, Arthur T. Minor League Baseball and Local Economic Development. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1995.

Kern, William S., ed. The Economics of Sports. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2000.

Klobuchar, Amy. Uncovering the Dome. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1982.

Lowry, Philip J. Green Cathedrals: The Ultimate Celebration of All 271 Major League and Negro League Ballparks Past and Present. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing, Co, 1992.

Noll, Roger G., and Andrew Zimbalist, editors. Sports, Jobs, and Taxes: The Economic Impact of Sports Teams and Stadiums. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1997.

Quirk, James, and Rodney D. Fort. Pay Dirt: The Business of Professional Team Sports. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992, 1997 update.

Quirk, James, and Rodney D. Fort. Hard Ball: The Abuse of Power in Pro Team Sports. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999.

Rafool, Mandy. Playing the Stadium Game: Financing Professional Sports Facilities in the 90s. (Legislative Finance Paper) Denver: National Conference of State Legislatures, 1997.

Rich, Wilbur, ed. The Economics and Politics of Sports Facilities. Quorum Books. Westport, Conn. 2000.

Richmond, Peter. Ballpark:: Camden Yards and the Building of an American Dream. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.

Riess, Stephen City Games. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1989

Rosentraub, Mark S. Major League Losers: The Real Cost of Sports and Who's Paying for It. New York: Basic Books, 1997.

Scully, Gerald. The Market Structure of Sports. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Shropshire, Kenneth L. The Sports Franchise Game: Cities in Pursuit of Sports Franchises, Events, Stadiums, and Arenas. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.

Weiner, Jay. Stadium Games: Fifty Years of Big League Greed and Bush League Boondoggles. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.

Whitford, David. 1993. Playing Hardball: The High-Stakes battle for Baseball's New Franchises. New York: Doubleday.

Zimmerman, Dennis. Tax-exempt Bonds and the Economics of Professional Sports Stadiums. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 1996.

Zimbalist, Andrew S. 1992. Baseball and Billions: A Probing Look Inside the Big Business of Our National Pastime. New York: Basic Books.

Zukin, Sharon. The Culture of Cities. Blackwell Publishers, 1995.


Baade, Robert A. "Professional Sports as Catalysts for Metropolitan Economic Development." Journal of Urban Affairs 1996, 18 (No. 1): 1-17.

Baade, Robert A. and Richard F. Dye. "Sports Stadiums and Area Development: A Critical Review." Economic Development Quarterly. August, 1988, 2 (No. 3): 265-275.

Bagli, Charles V. "Bronx Offers Stadium Plan for Keeping Team." New York Times 28 Sep. 1998.

Barnes, Tom. "Plan B: The Starting Gate; Stadium-Convention Center Projects Offer Tourism Venture." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 10 Mar. 1998: A1.

Bast, Joseph L. "Stop Stadium Madness: Why It Started, How to Stop It." Heartland Policy+ Study, February 23, 1998. Heartland Institute. Available online at

Betzold, Michael and Ethan Casey (1997). Queen of Diamonds: The Tiger Stadium Story. Northmont Publishing Company, Inc. West Bloomfield. IL.

Bernstein, Mark F. "Sports Stadiums Boondoggle; Building hopes in the City." The Public Interest 22 June 1998: 45.

Chema, Thomas V. "When Professional Sports Justify the Subsidy." Journal of Urban Affairs 1996, 18 (No. 1): 19-22.

Cooper, Matthew Gary Cohen, and Jim Lynn. 1991. If you build it... They might not come. Why big projects don't always yield big benefits. U.S. News & World Report. Jun 24, 1991 26-28.

Horrow, Rick. "Public/Private Partnerships and Sports Facilities." Tennessee's Business 1996, 7 (No. 1-2): 25-30.

Horrow, Richard. "Sports Stadiums and other Entertainment Investments Are Good Business for Cities and States" (Statement Before Senate Judiciary Committee - June 22, 1999)

Johnson, Arthur T. and Allen Sack. "Assessing the Value of Sports Facilities: The Importance of Noneconomic Factors." Economic Development Quarterly November, 1996, 10 (No. 4): 369-81.

Lowenstein, Ronnie, et al. "Double Play: The Economics and Financing of Stadiums for the Yankees and Mets." (New York Independent Budget Office: Fiscal Brief, April 1998)

Lowenstein, Ronnie, et al. New York Independent Budget Office "Home Base for Mets and Yankees Fans" (New York Independent Budget Office: Fiscal Brief, September 28, 1998)

Lowenstein, Ronnie, et al. "Public Financing of Professional Baseball Stadiums" (New York Independent Budget Office: Testimony, June 11, 1998;)

McGraw, Dan (1996). Playing the Stadium Game. US News and World Report, June 3:pp. 46-51.

Noll, Roger. "Are New Stadiums Worth the Cost?" The Brookings Review 15 (No. 3): 35-39.

Noll, Roger and Andrew Zimbalist. "Sports, Jobs, and Taxes" The Brookings Review, Summer, 1997, 15 (No.3): 1-7.

Rosentraub, Mark S. "Does the Emperor Have New Clothes?" Journal of Urban Affairs 1996, 18 (No 1): 23-31.

Rosentraub, Mark S., David Swindell, Michael Przybylski, and Daniel R. Mullins. "Sport and Downtown Development Strategy: If You Build It, Will Jobs Come?" Journal of Urban Affairs, 1994, 16 (No 3): 221-239.

Regan, Thomas H. 1991. "A Study of the Economic Impact of the Denver Broncos Football Club on the Denver, Colorado Metropolitan Economy." EED Dissertation, University of Northern Colorado. DAI-A 54/04, page 1451.

Sickman, Phillip. 1995. Sports Pork. The American Enterprise. 6:3, 80-82.

Other Contacts

Dr. Peter von Allmen
Department of Economics and Business
Moravian College

Professor Robert Baade
Department of Economics
Lake Forest College

Charles Bagli
New York Times

Joe Concha

Neil DeMause
Field of

First and Goal, Inc.
Paul G. Allen Chairman

Alan Hertzberg
Member, Pittsburgh City Council

Ann Kakwasaki
Director, Public Facilities District

Dr. Michael Leeds
Associate Professor of Economics
Temple University

Kelly Leid
Metropolitan Football Stadium District (Denver)

Ronnie Lowenstein
Director, New York City Independent Budget Office

Linda Mayfield
Harris County-Houston Sports Authority

Mike Miller
Moravian College

Robert Noll
Professor of Economics
Stanford University

Professor John Palmer
University of Western Ontario

Pittsburgh Sports & Exhibition Authority
I.N. Rendall Harper Jr., Chairman

Doug Root
Office of the Mayor
Pittsburgh, PA

Paul Schell
Mayor, City of Seattle

Ronald Smothers
New York Times

John Tierney
New York Times

Andrew Zimbalist
Professor of Economics
Smith College

Internet Resources (partial list)
The Great American Baseball Trip
Ballparks, Inc.
CNN/Sports Illustrated
USA Today
FOX Sports
CBS Sportsline

Team Resources

National Football League
Paul Tagliabue, Commissioner

New York Giants
New York Jets
Seattle Seahawks
Denver Broncos
Houston Texans
Pittsburgh Steelers

Major League Baseball
Bud Selig, Commissioner

New York Mets
New York Yankees
Pittsburgh Pirates
Houston Astros
Seattle Mariners

National Hockey League
Gary Bettman, Commissioner

New Jersey Devils
New York Islanders
New York Rangers
Pittsburgh Penguins
Colorado Avalanche

National Basketball Association
David Stern, Commissioner

New Jersey Nets
New York Knickerbockers
Denver Nuggets
Seattle Supersonics
Houston Rockets
Colorado Rockies

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